Extracts of Record for Visa Purposes


A colleague and I were discussing translations of personal documents for visa applications recently, and I was surprised to learn that attorneys regularly ask her for form-based translations of birth certificates. Rather than have her produce a full, alternate-language copy of the original record, they want a data table filled out (similar to the new, multi-lingual extract of record in the EU). In all my years providing translations of birth, marriage, and divorce certificates, I have never had this request from any agency or direct client—and the news went against all my training.

According to both the US State Department website, and to my great relief, the attorneys are not technically correct to ask for this format change:

Translations. Any document containing foreign language submitted to the Service shall be accompanied by a full English language translation which the translator has certified as complete and accurate, and by the translator’s certification that he or she is competent to translate from the foreign language into English.

(emphasis added; source: www.state.gov)

The USCIS website says the same thing:
11.3 Foreign Language Documents and Translations.
(a) Document Translations .
All documents submitted in support of an application or petition must include complete translation into English. In addition, there must be a certification from the translator indicating that the translation is complete and accurate and attesting to his or her competence as a translator. See 8 CFR 103.2(b)(3) .
(emphasis added; source: www.uscis.gov)
USCIS notes that, for countries with lengthy and dense civil recording practices, the “keeper of a record” will sometimes issue an extract (a simplified or abridged version), which can be accepted as long as it comes from an official, authorized record-keeper and contains adequate information about the individual(s). Translators are only meant to provide complete and accurate translations of the record—not shorten it.
That said, I wouldn’t be surprised if these websites were maybe out of date, or (more likely) out of sync with actual practices used by civil servants to process requests.  The truth is, neither my colleague who translates into a form template nor I have heard of issues with the applications that use either of our methods. So now, I am curious…
What has your experience been? Have you been asked to translate a document into a different format? Have you had issues with providing translations for visa applications? Please share below!



We are all translators.

For a little over a year now, I’ve technically been a part-time translator—by day, I work in my industry of specialization as a legal assistant. I draft, revise, and proofread legal writing five days a week, consult with court clerks, and prepare documents for filing. Two or three nights a week (on average—we all know how variable freelance schedules can be!), I continue to translate for agency and private clients and teach my source language to a couple students.


When my career as a translator was brand new, there was a pervasive idea among language professionals that you were only a “real” translator or interpreter if it was the sole way you earned your living. At least, that was the message I gleaned from all the industry publications and professionals blogs I read. Perhaps things have changed, and just in case it wasn’t obvious: however frequently you practice your craft, as long as you conduct yourself with professionalism and obtain the requisite training to do your work well, you are a professional.

There is room enough in this industry for all of us. Translation and interpreting are increasingly growing in demand. Tech companies continue to attempt to reduce translation to machine output, and the results continue to highlight the need for human conduits between languages A and B.

As a full-time translator, I appreciated the time I had to really delve deep into vocabulary research and work on glossary projects. As a moonlighter, I love how my legal translations have improved from the interactions I have with attorneys’ work products. “Moonlighting” has allowed me to streamline my translation work so that I get to spend a greater percentage of my time on what I love: words.

I know many of my colleagues in the industry would never give up the freedom to be had in independent contracting—and why should you? But I have found my greatest artistic freedom within the so-called limits of a 9-to-5. My freelance clients continue to be happy with my work. And I don’t feel any less a translator than I ever did.

This story is in no way a defense: I hope only to inspire other translators to be true to themselves. If you love being your own boss and exploring your interests on your own terms, keep doing it. If you love the structure, stability, or socialization of an office job, get one. And if you love being a professional translator, be one, under whatever conditions you thrive upon. Your language skills are valuable, and however much you want to share them with the world in an educated, professional manner, the contribution is needed and appreciated.

We are all translators, no matter how often we can do the work.

Rainy weather reading


The rainy season is in full swing in California, and I have been taking advantage of the weather to snuggle up with some great books. Here are a few of my recent favorites:

  • Ces enfants de ma vie, by Gabrielle Roy – This French collection of related tales starts out slowly with some shorter stories, but keep with it! It builds into longer, more personal tales of life as a young teacher in remote areas of 1930’s Canada. We read this for our local book club, and those of us who finished it could not stop talking about the ending. The sweet descriptions of the Canadian landscape are a great touch to help you embrace the colder seasons, too.
  • Hocus Pocus, by Kurt Vonnegut – The story of a war veteran who teaches at a college for the disabled, then at the prison across the lake, and survives the takeover of the town when the inmates escape (among other things). It hits a bit close to home in the current American political climate, but Vonnegut is one of my favorite authors. Perfect if you like witty, sometimes dark humor.
  • Pacsirta, by Dezső Kosztolányi – For those of you who read Hungarian, I loved this description of a family experiencing temporary empty-nesting when a couple’s daughter visits cousins out of town. Plenty of laughs, with enough substantive food for thought to keep you hooked. And there’s no sappy Disney ending.
  • The River of Doubt: Theodore Roosevelt’s Darkest Journey, by Candice Millard – I am still working on this piece of non-fiction. Teddy Roosevelt was a total character with huge capacity for persistence. This book documents the trip he took after losing his bid for a third presidential term, down the Amazon with his son Kermit. They faced disease, death, and even murder. Fascinating!

What are you reading lately? Can you recommend any favorite authors? Share in the comments below!

ATA Statement regarding the Executive Order on Immigration

Dave Rumsey, current president of the American Translators Association, has issued the following statement regarding President Trump’s Executive Order on Immigration:

As the voice of over 10,000 interpreters and translators in the United States and abroad, the American Translators Association is very concerned about President Trump’s recent Executive Order to suspend issuing visas to nationals from certain countries in the Middle East and northern Africa.

This decision will have a negative effect on interpreters and translators who are citizens of those countries and their personal and business relations with the US. It may have a particularly adverse effect on those interpreters who bravely served with US forces in Iraq.

ATA has been monitoring the progress of the US government’s Special Immigrant Visa program, which issues visas to interpreters assisting forces in Iraq and Afghanistan. ATA expressed its displeasure in the New York Times in February 2016 (“Visas for Interpreters”) when the government attempted to delay and complicate the application process for this program. The government ultimately rejected its plans thanks to pressure from ATA and others.

Nevertheless, ATA will continue to raise objections to any obstruction to this successful and valuable program.

ATA values the strengths and skills of its diverse membership, which includes a large number of immigrants to this country as well as overseas members in over 100 countries. The experience and expertise brought by these members not only benefit the association, but the nation at large.

ATA will continue to monitor the situation and encourages members who are concerned about changes to US immigration policy to contact their congressperson, senator or the President through these links:

If you would like specific information on the best way to make your voice count when contacting your representatives, read the Indivisible Guide. (It’s partisan, but provides good tips for everyone.)

I would also encourage all of my colleagues in the US and abroad to practice compassion in their communications and actions in the coming days and months. Individuals on every side of the many issues that have arisen are afraid, but we cannot make good choices and establish positive change from a place of fear. Be kind to your neighbors, colleagues, and strangers in the street. We’re all in this together.



Book review: Des nouvelles d’Édouard, by Michel Tremblay

I am lucky to have an active French book club here in Sacramento. We recently read Des nouvelles d’Édouard, by Michel Tremblay – and I heartily recommend adding it to your list.


We take turns suggesting books for our next meeting, and this one came with the very simple description of being “a novel about a man from Montreal who travels to Paris.” Imagine my surprise when the prologue establishes our hero as an aging drag queen! Édouard inherits a sum of money from his mother and decides to go to France to make his dream come true; he documents the ocean voyage as a journal to his sister-in-law, in lieu of letters.

Édouard’s homosexuality certainly crops up as a theme in his notes, but only a minor one, really. His struggles to meet someone are the same for everyone, no matter your preferences.

What really stood out to me was the difficulty he had with social class. His ticket to Paris was bought with a small inheritance, and clearly he could never have afforded it otherwise on his salary as a shoe salesman. I was thrilled when he went all out, opting for first class, to better study the habits of the highfalutin people he normally only interacted with by serving. In some ways, he enjoys it; in other ways, he doesn’t.

“On est toujours le nobody de quelqu’un d’autre!”

Besides wrestling with how to come across as “Kultured” to the upper-class women on board without being totally bored out of his skull, Édouard has to deal with the aggressive sexism of the men assigned to his first-class dining table. And that’s on top of all your standard culture shock issues.

Des nouvelles d’Édouard is full of laugh-out-loud one-liners. It was the most fun book I’ve read all year, truly.

I should warn you, this was a divisive selection for our club. Those of us who loved it had a lot of fun with it; others just didn’t connect with the author’s sarcasm or criticism of France. In case this one doesn’t sound quite like your cup of tea, keep in mind that Des nouvelles d’Édouard is 4th in a series of 6 semi-autobiographical novels by Michel Tremblay; each works fine as a stand-alone, and I hear the others are even better, and a bit different.

What good books have you picked up lately? What’s the last surprising thing you’ve read? Share in the comments below!


Learn Something New in 2017

Happy new year! As you begin to make your plans for 2017, I hope you include some education experiences. I’ve had my eye on a paralegal course offered through the UC Davis extension school here in Sacramento – just once a year, they give the classes live and in person, rather than online. That’s an important feature to me, since so much of my work is remote from a home office. After some budgeting of time and resources, this is the year I sign up.


If you don’t have concrete ideas yet, or prefer to study from the comfort of your own pajamas, here is a short list of free or low-cost options:

  • Coursera has a wide selection of massive open online courses (MOOCs) in their “Learning English” category. Even if English is your target language, though, the University of California, Irvine, presents higher-level topics on grammar, verb tense, and academic writing that could benefit anyone.
  • EdX offers a great selection business courses, among others. If improving some aspect of your work habits is part of your list of resolutions for 2017, this is a great place to start.
  • FUN is a French platform that offers classes (mainly in French) on topics such as law and finance.
  • The American Translators Association always has a new live webinar in the works, and they offer some past webinars for viewing on demand. For instance, you can watch my previous classes on copyediting and proofreading.
  • ATA’s French Language Division produces fun podcasts for French-English translators and interpreters that you can listen to on the web or in the car through iTunes or SoundCloud.
  • eCPD is another translator-focused platform that offers live webinars on topics like how to manage corpora and updates in medical terminology.
  • ProZ also posts a huge selection of webinars, including an incredible variety on the dozens of translation and productivity tools you might use. They just restructured their paid memberships so that the newest option gives you access to the entire webinar library (including my class on credentials translation). You don’t have to be a member, though – you can still purchase access to individual webinars à la carte.

Do you know of any other great resources? What are your education goals for 2017? Share in the comments below!

Listen to me with the FLD!

I recently recorded a podcast with the American Translators Association’s French Language Division. Click here to listen to “Adventures in Early America – Translating Liancourt’s Travels,” in which I chat with host Angela Benoit about translating Comments on the North American Travels of La Rochefoucauld-Liancourt: 1794 – 1798. We had a lot of fun discussing some of the challenges, quirks, and historical significance of the original author and his unique French style.


More information on Comments on the North American Travels of La Rochefoucauld-Liancourt: 1794 – 1798 is available here.

This podcast is part of the FLD’s continuing education series. Each episode focuses on some aspect of the craft of French-English translation (or interpreting). Learn more on the FLD website.

2016 Translator Wish List


Happy holiday season! No matter if, what, or how you celebrate, this is the time of year when gift-giving explodes (and, more practically, perhaps you have some business spending to do to boost your tax deductions). Here are some ideas for gifts to get the professional language lover in your life, or maybe just treat yo’self:

  • The Spy Who Couldn’t Spell, by Yudhijit Battaharjee – The true story of a dyslexic traitor and his attempt to steal from the FBI. I just ordered this for myself, and I can’t wait to dig in – a language issue as the key to solving a crime? How fun!
  • Interpreters with Lewis and Clark, by W. Dale Nelson – Another true story with language professionals at its core. The story of Lewis and Clark’s journey across America never ceases to fascinate me (I love hiking and kayaking, but wow!). This will take it to another level. Summary in French here.
  • Books in translation – Share your own favorite, or try something new. Words Without Borders has a long list of women writers in translation here.
  • Movie passes – Have you heard about the new film, Arrival? Linguists are central to the plot. The heroes, if you will. And who wouldn’t want to feel like a superhero for once?
  • Yoga passes – Whether you are a translator, interpreter, academic, or other kind of linguist, chances are you spend a lot of time doing physically taxing work (lengthy typing sessions, demanding conferences). I’ve noticed more and more of my colleagues talking about how much they love their new yoga routine – it has to be the perfect form of exercise for an introvert. Groupon is a great place to snag some trial runs for the linguist in your life.
  • A very nice notebook – I started using the Bullet Journal method this fall when the needs of my various business and personal interests all started to collide. Wow, guys. Basically, you take any notebook you like and create a custom planner – if you like calendars, there are dozens of suggestions for calendar layouts. If you like lists, there are hundreds of ideas for lists to keep. My favorite feature was the “habit tracker.” Using a really simple chart, you list out what is important for you to accomplish (walk the dogs, take a yoga class, do a source-language maintenance activity) and how often. Then you fill in the squares when you actually do it. Game. Changer.

What other ideas do you have for presents for language professionals? What’s the best present you ever received? Share in the comments below!

Update: NYU’s Certificate Program for Translators Has Changed

New York University recently revamped its translation studies program (which I first reviewed here), but it hadn’t been clear to me exactly what those changes were. Luckily, a rep was available in San Francisco at the 57th annual American Translators Association conference to answer all my questions. (If you’ve been confused, too, you’re not alone – she said no one has understood it well!)

The higher-level translator education options through NYU are always a favorite of mine to recommend. Besides being a good value (especially when compared to the programs in Monterrey), the translation studies department at this school brings in really wonderful teachers. Certain languages are taught primarily in person, and other languages require mostly online coursework. In true New York City style, the best developed tracks are finance and law, but you can pick and choose from a good variety in a number of languages.


I was initially disappointed when NYU announced the change to their program – if it’s not obvious, I absolutely loved my certificate program in French-to-English legal translation, and it sounded like they were eliminating this option altogether.

Fear not! Only the name has been trashed: now, instead of earning a “certificate” from your 6-course program, you earn a “series badge.” If for any reason you do not complete all 6 courses, you don’t walk away empty handed, because for any course you complete with a “B” grade or better, you earn an individual course “badge.” (Both of these badge types are a digital symbol that you can use in your web presence and resume to show what you have studied – similar to how MOOCs now operate.)

Although I’m dubious about the dumbing down of the name of the credential issued as proof of these studies, I love how much more welcoming this change makes the program. A few years ago, every new student was required to take the Introduction to Translation Studies course – which meant that even intermediate- to advanced-level translators looking for some resume padding or a switch to a new specialty had to fork over the dollars for a class they could likely teach on their own. In the new “badge” system, you are free to choose from any of the classes you like; as long as you successfully complete 6, you earn your Credential Formerly Known As Certificate. Newbies can start with Intro still, but more seasoned professionals can dive right in to English to French Patent Translation.

Classes are available for Arabic, French, German, Portuguese, and Spanish translation. You can also take classes from their Translation Studies series, including an introduction to CAT tools, editing for translators, and subtitling. Browse the course offerings here and here.

For more information on the badge system, click here. NYU also offers a Master of Science in Translation, and several other new diploma options depending on the amount of college education you’ve completed. Now that someone helped walk me through the options, I’m excited about this boost to translator education opportunities! (Also, I promise I’m not paid to promote this school – I really did get a lot out of the program I completed.)

How did you learn translation? What are your plans for continuing education? Are you thinking of switching to a new specialty field? Share your thoughts in the comments!


Your copyediting questions answered

The American Translators Association recently asked me back to present another webinar. This time, we explored how to copyedit a text well without scrubbing out the original author’s unique voice. If you missed the live webinar, it will be available on demand here.

Live listeners came up with some great questions that I promised to answer. So, here goes:

  1. How do you differentiate between translating idomatically and respecting the author’s tone?

    This is where your specialized professional knowledge comes in handy! First of all, you will be familiar enough with your source text to recognize a cliché or common idiom. “Raining cats and dogs,” for instance. Those are characteristic to a language or culture, but likely not a particular author—so you can localize them at will.

    Second of all, if you read through your source text once or twice before you dig into the translation, you will notice words or phrases that the author reaches for often. For long texts, it helps to jot some notes on this as you go. The list you end up with will be your road map to the author’s style—and therefore, the pieces you must respect.

  2. I edit a school’s weekly newsletter. The current style is each division writes their own piece, and I compile them together. As a result, the reader can recognize different voices from different divisions. Should I edit all divisions’ texts so that they have a unified voice, or should I keep each division’s distinct voice as it is?

    The best answer I can give is, “It depends.” What is the goal of the newsletter? Is it a marketing product for a private school? An informative piece for parents? If the text leans more to the advertising side, unified is usually better—consistency in the writing builds a sense of reliability in the institution behind the newsletter. But if the piece is supposed to show parents what their kids have been up to, multiple voices would be a great way to demonstrate just how well rounded is their kids’ educational experience.

  3. How do you handle an ellipsis at the end of a French sentence?

    I had a lot of people ask about this! Strictly speaking, the French use an ellipsis (…) where American English writers use “etc.” Both of these feel clunky to me most times. If you are translating a technical or very professional piece, then by all means keep the “etc.” But if you can, consider rewriting the English a bit to, shall we say, imply the ellipsis.

    For example:

    Instead of this: Campers can try out activities like boating, fishing, hiking, horseback riding, etc.

    Try this: Campers can try out a variety of activities, such as boating, fishing, hiking, and horseback riding.

    For more formal writing, “including” is a good alternative to “such as.”

If you think of any other questions, ask away in the comments section! Until then, happy translating.